The mangrove whistler (Pachycephala cinerea) belongs to the family of whistlers and shrikethrushes, the Pachycephalidae.
Appearance, physical description and identificationThe mangrove whistler (Pachycephala cinerea) is a medium-sized whistler, measuring 15 to 27 cm in length and weighing 20 to 25 grams. Both the sexes look alike.
The bill is black. The irises are dark brown. The feet are silvery gray. The whistler call is a loud whistling "pee..purr..chiaoonkk" sound.
The bill is dark gray. The irises are dark brown. The feet are pale gray. The cuckooshrike call is a repeated "twet..twet" or "wee..wee" sound.
Origin, geographical range and distributionThe mangrove whistler species are distributed in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines. The subspecies P. c. plateni is distributed in Palawan Islands, in west Philippines.
The mangrove whistler nominate subspecies P. c. cinerea is distributed in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Indonesia.
In India, the mangrove whistler species occur in the states of West Bengal and Odisha and also in the Union Territory of Andaman Islands.
Ecosystem and habitatThese mangrove whistler species have moderate forest dependence. They normally occur in altitudes from 0 to 1000 meters. The artificial ecosystems and habitats of these whistler species include rural gardens, casuarina and eucalyptus plantations and urban parks.
The natural ecosystems and habitats of these mangrove whistler species include, tropical and subtropical mangrove forests, tropical and subtropical moist montane forests and moist lowland forests.
Diet and feeding behaviorThe diet of these mangrove whistler consists mainly of insects. Insects, insect larvae, beetles, grasshoppers, locust, crickets, dragonflies, cicadas, moths, butterflies, crickets, spiders and airborne ants and termites are their primary food.
These mangrove whistler species hunt insect prey by sallying. They may form feeding flocks with other small birds. They hawk airborne insects and also glean their prey from the foliage and branches of trees.
Reproduction and breeding habitsThe breeding season of these whistler species is from April to July in India. In much of southeast Asia the breeding season is from March to June. The laying season is during April in Java (Indonesia).
The nesting sites are usually located on small trees 1-4 meters above the ground. The clutch contains two eggs.
Migration and movement patternsThese mangrove whistler species are non-migrant, resident birds.
Mangrove whistler - Quick Facts
- Scientific name: Pachycephala cinerea
- Species author: (Blyth, 1847)
- Synonyms/Protonym: Muscitrea cinerea Blyth, 1847
- Family: Pachycephalidae › Passeriformes › Aves › Chordata › Animalia
- Vernacular names: English: Mangrove whistler, Chinese: 红树啸鹟, French: Siffleur cendré, German: Schnäpperdickkopf, Spanish: Silbador de manglar, Russian: Белобрюхий свистун, Japanese: マングローブモズヒタキ, Indonesian: Burung Kancilan Bakau
- Other names: White-bellied Whistler
- Distribution: India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines
- Diet and feeding habits: caterpillars, insects, insect larvae, beetles, airborne ants and termites, grasshoppers
- IUCN status listing: Least Concern (LC)
Conservation and survivalThe global population size of the mangrove whistler (Pachycephala cinerea) has not been quantified. The overall population trend of the species is considered to be stable.
Throughout its range, this species is reported to be scarce to locally fairly common. The generation length is 6.7 years. Its distribution size is about 7,600,000 sq.km.
Mangrove habitat alteration and destruction, developments in coastal aquaculture and expansion of agriculture are the main threats that are endangering the survival of this whistler species.
IUCN and CITES statusThe mangrove whistler (Pachycephala cinerea) does not approach the thresholds for being Vulnerable either under the range size criterion, or under the population trend criterion or under the population size criterion.
The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has categorized and evaluated the species and has listed it as of "Least Concern".
The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) status is ‘ Not Evaluated’ for mangrove whistler (Pachycephala cinerea).
|Taxonomy and scientific classification of Pachycephala cinerea|
|Binomial name:||Pachycephala cinerea|
|IUCN status listing:||
The two recognized subspecies of mangrove whistler (Pachycephala cinerea) are: Pachycephala cinerea cinerea (Blyth, 1847) and Pachycephala cinerea plateni (A. W. H. Blasius, 1888).
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mangrove_Whistler.jpg (cropped)
Image author: Dibyendu Ash | License: CC BY-SA 3.0
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